The general focus of work in our laboratory is on examining how the brain controls the preparation, initiation and execution of movement in people with neurological disorders that affect movement (e.g. Parkinson’s disease (PD), ataxia and dystonia). The laboratory uses a variety of non-invasive neurophysiological techniques (high-resolution EEG, TMS, tDCS, startle) to probe the cortical, subcortical and spinal mechanisms contributing to movement impairment. These methods are combined with measures of movement kinematics and kinetics and multi-channel electromyography (EMG) that provide objective quantitative assessment of movement performance. In collaboration with colleagues at the Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR), we are also using brain imaging methods (magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) to examine the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of movement disorders. The present focus of research is examining the mechanisms contributing to the two of the cardinal motor symptoms of basal ganglia dysfunction: akinesia (poverty of spontaneous voluntary movement) and bradykinesia (slowing of movement). The laboratory is currently examining the relationship between freezing of gait and sleep disorders in people with Parkinson’s disease, the mechanisms by which external cues facilitate gait initiation in PD (funded by the NIH), and the mechanisms of impaired control of repetitive movements in PD. The goal of the program is to translate this knowledge to the development, testing and implementation of novel therapies and interventions for people with disordered movement.
(For a comprehensive list of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.)
Alibiglou L, Videnovic A, Planetta PJ, Vaillancourt DE, MacKinnon CD. Subliminal gait initiation deficits in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: A harbinger of freezing of gait? Mov Disord. 2016 Jun 2;.
Wright ZA, Carlsen AN, MacKinnon CD, Patton JL. (2015) Degraded expression of learned feedforward control in movements released by startle. Experimental Brain Research. In press.
Stegemöller EL, Allen DP, Simuni T, MacKinnon CD. Motor cortical oscillations are abnormally suppressed during repetitive movement in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 May 29.
Carlsen AN, Eagles JS, MacKinnon CD. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the supplementary motor area modulates the preparatory activation level in the human motor system. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Feb 15;279:68-75
Kurani AS, Seidler RD, Burciu RG, Comella CL, Corcos DM, Okun MS, MacKinnon CD, Vaillancourt DE. Subthalamic nucleus--sensorimotor cortex functional connectivity in de novo and moderate Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Jan;36(1):462-9.
Eagles JS, Carlsen AN, MacKinnon CD. (2015) Neural processes mediating the preparation and release of focal motor output are suppressed or absent during imagined movement. Experimental Brain Research. 233(5):1625-1637.
Creath RA, Prettyman M, Shulman L, Hilliard M, Martinez K, MacKinnon CD, Mille M-L, Simuni T, Zhang J, Rogers MW. Self-triggered assistive stimulus training improves step initiation in persons with Parkinson's disease. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. (2013)
Videnovic A, Marlin C, Alibiglou L, Planetta PJ, Vaillancourt DE, Mackinnon CD. Increased REM sleep without atonia in Parkinson disease with freezing of gait. Neurology. 2013 Sep 17;81(12):1030-5.
MacKinnon CD, Allen DP, Shiratori T, Rogers MW. Early and unintentional release of planned motor actions during motor cortical preparation. PLoS One. 2013 May 7;8(5):e63417.
Bajema MC, MacKinnon CD, Carter MJ, Kennefick M, Perlmutter S, Carlsen AN. (2013) Pause time alters the preparation of two-component movements. Experimental Brain Research. 231(1):85-96.
Videnovic A, Marlin C, Alibiglou L, Planetta PJ, Vaillancourt DE, MacKinnon CD. (2013) Increased REM sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait. Neurology. 81(12):1030-1035.
Stegemöller EL, Zadikoff C, Allen DP, MacKinnon CD. (2013) Subthalamic deep brain stimulation improves movement amplitude but not hastening of repetitive finger movements. Neuroscience Letters. 552:135-9.
MacKinnon CD. The external globus pallidus: much more than an inhibitory relay of the indirect pathway. Mov Disord. 2012 Sep 1;27(10):1219.
Alibiglou L, MacKinnon CD. (2012) The early release of planned movement by acoustic startle can be delayed by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex. J Physiology. 590(4):919-936.
Mille M-L, Creath R, Prettyman M, Johnson-Hilliard M, Martinez K, MacKinnon C, Rogers MW. (2012) Posture and Locomotion Coupling: A target for rehabilitation interventions in persons with Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease. Epub. Online.
Rogers MW, Kennedy R, Palmer S, Pawar M, Reising M, Martinez KM, Simuni T, Zhang Y, MacKinnon CD. (2011) Postural preparation prior to stepping in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurophysiology. 106(2): 915-24.
Lewis GN, MacKinnon CD, Trumbower R, Perreault EJ. (2010) Co-contraction modifies the reflex response elicited in muscles shortened by a joint perturbation. Experimental Brain Research. 207(1-2):39-48.
Stegemöller EL, Allen DP, Simuni T, MacKinnon CD. (2010) Rate-dependent impairments in repetitive finger movements in patients with Parkinson's disease are not due to peripheral fatigue. Neuroscience Letters. 482(1):1-6.
Carlsen AN, MacKinnon CD. (2010) Motor preparation is modulated by the temporal resolution of response timing information. Brain Research. 1322: 38-49.
Allen DP, Stegemöller EL, Zadikoff C, Rosenow J, MacKinnon CD. (2010) Suppression of deep brain stimulation artifacts from the electroencephalogram by frequency-domain Hempel filtering. Clinical Neurophysiology. 121(8):1227-32.
Sanger TD et al., Members of Taskforce on Childhood Motor Disorders. (2010) Definition and classification of hyperkinetic movement disorders in childhood. Movement Disorders. 25(11):1538-49.
Stegemöller EL, Simuni T, MacKinnon CD. (2010) Reply: Effect of movement frequency on repetitive finger movements in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders. 25(2):253.
Allen DP, MacKinnon CD. (2010) Time-frequency analysis of movement-related spectral power in EEG during repetitive movements: a comparison of methods. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 186(1):107-15.